Background: TRiads-P is a national, translational research programme funded by NHS Education for Scotland (NES) which adopts a co-ordinated approach using behavioural and theoretical research to achieve quality improvement in community pharmacy services.
Objectives: To improve the quality of pharmaceutical care of patients in Scotland through a multi-disciplinary programme of research.
Methods:A mixed-methods approach was adopted comprising four empirical elements to date:
Consensus Study to identify priorities for practice.
Diagnostic Study with community pharmacists and counter staff, to elicit key determinants of the target behaviour using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF).
National Survey of community pharmacists in Scotland, to: measure current practice; measure beliefs, knowledge and attitudes regarding the target behaviour; explore which beliefs predict target behaviour.
Intervention Development using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) which comprises Intervention Functions and Policy Categories.
Results: The target behaviour selected was the management of over-the-counter (OTC) consultations. Information gathering is the main predictor of an evidence-based outcome with these consultations. The key determinants identified by the 30 TDF interviews included: lack of privacy, concerns regarding patient safety, having appropriate skills and knowledge. In total, 1 in 4 pharmacies in Scotland were represented in the survey. Substantial variation in practice was reported. Information gathering in general was associated with greater perception of privacy and intention. Elicitation of specific information (other medicines used/medical conditions) was associated with TDF domains of Optimism, Intention and Beliefs about Consequences. The survey results mapped to four intervention functions (Education, Persuasion, Modelling, Enablement) and one Policy Category (Guidelines).
Conclusions: TRiads-P uses a systematic theory-based approach to develop interventions to promote the translation of evidence into practice. A toolkit of interventions is being developed, the components of which are underpinned by the results of this programme.